1. Hello. This is my first attempt at writing an essay, so please bear and be a ruthless critic in marking out the deficiencies, while also pointing out the positives and motivating for the same 🙂

    It was the dusk of the year-1945, when the world slept for a peaceful night, after continuous dreadful nights, which lasted for 6 years, starting 1939. The world war-2 had finally ended, but this peace came at a cost, with a loss of 40 million armed men, an even frivolous and unprecedented number of civilians, dead, torchered and migrated, with use of ever horrific war tactics and weaponry, shift in global power poles, shattered economies; time was ripe for the world to pledge for a long lasting peace. In the backdrop of these realisations, the United Nations came into existence, with member nations promising for a peaceful co-existence through mutual co-operation.

    The UN essentially consists of two bodies which are strategically important: UNGA & UNSC. While UNGA consists of all member nations, is the most inclusive and representative, but less powerful in terms of its stake in decision making, the UNSC, on the other hand consist of 5 permanent members: US, China, USSR, France & Britain. Apart from permanent members, UNSC also consist of some temporary members, whose membership lasts for 2 years. The UNSC is the core decision making body of UN, all the strategies of UN are framed by UNSC. The permanent members of UNSC enjoy veto power over its decisions. These 5 permanent members were also the allied powers of ww-2, who defeated the axis powers of Germany, Italy & Japan, to claim victory. With most of the contemporary developing countries still to gain independence, the erstwhile allied powers were undisputedly, the most powerful nations of the world, both, in military might as well as economic strength. Hence representing the most powerful international body, the UNSC. The UNSC was mandated to ensure the objectives of UN, that of peace and stability.

    This mandate of UNSC was marred by two important events in the post 1945 world, over the coming years. One was, the bitter rivalry between USA & Russia, the two most powerful economies, for increasing their influence over countries, getting into arms race,, development of weapon based industries, involvement in each other’s interests and policies, which at times, even led to standing armies, what is known as the Cold War era began, which lasted till 1991, with the disintegration of erstwhile USSR. The other was successive independence of many nations of Africa, south America and Asia from imperialism, which continued till 1960’s. The newly independent nations, most of which chose not to side by any of the cold war powers, formed a Non-Aligned Movement. India was one of the founding members of NAM. The motive was to operate under their respective sovereignty and focus on developing their economies, uninfluenced by the Cold war theater.

    The UNSC members, influenced by their respective diplomatic stands, utilised UNSC as the platform to influence or hinder its decisions. Instances like Indo-Pak war of 1948 and the Kashmir issue, which was discussed at the UNSC. Members of UNSC introduced the resolution on Kashmir’s independence, only after was turned down by USSR, using its veto power, hence coming to India’s rescue. These were the first symbols of increasing stake of neo-independent states in world politics.

    The neo-independent states, with passage of years, improved on their economic fronts, transforming into the semantics of developing countries in the 1980’s and 1990’s. This period witnessed a revival and transformation of global economic scenario, with the advent of globalisation. This changed the dynamics of global economy forever, giving equal market access to developing nations, improving human resource development, spur in manufacturing, with the increased levels of demands and market. This phenomenon of globalisation, made countries and economies of the world interdependent. This era also witnessed a spur in many economic groupings such as ASEAN, representing the developing economies of south-east Asia. The groupings and inter-dependencies, increased th stake of developing counties in global economy.

    The at times local political and strategic issues, also caused these developing countries to step-up their military and defense, often with support of any of the two world powers. The instance of Vietnam war, Gulf war, Israel-Arab war, Indo-Pak wars are the cases in point. The cold war powers, often sided by any one of the stakeholders to war, to influence and impose their policies, while keeping them at fore-front. This made the developing countries one of the stakeholders, in the global political scenario, thus providing them space and entry into the room of world politics.

    With the fall of Berlin wall, in 1989 and the disintegration of USSR, in 1991, the cold war politics essentially waned forever, transforming the global scenario further. This provided the essential break of policies, specially for the developing countries to increase their economic and defense clout further. With increasing share in world GDP, demographic transition, increasing urbanisation and maturing politico-administrative relations, the developing countries ventured in, to increasing share in decision making on the international stage, throughout the decade of 1990’s.

    In the period of new millennium and further, the developing countries, such as India, Brazil, Germany, Japan, also known as G-4, based on their shared vision and demands, came together, either at bilateral or multi-lateral forums, demanding for increasing their share in decision making at global levels, viz a membership of UNSC. These developing countries, with high population and GDP share, are not only stake holders in global policies, but are also poised to be influenced by them the most. The G-4 countries, also have high contributions in UN operations, be it in terms of financial or peace-keeping forces. Japan & Germany are the second and third largest contributors to UN regular budget, respectively, only after USA, while India has been one of the largest contributor to peace-keeping forces, Brazil, the largest country in South America, in terms of area, population and GDP. The permanent members, on the other hand don’t enjoy the clout over global policies, which they used to, initially. This has undermined the working and decision making of UNSC to a great extent, which has started to lose its sheen and utility. The American invasion of Iraq, question of dealing with terrorism and extremist non-state actors in middle east and north Africa, Russian annexation of Crimea, Chinese expansion in south China sea, are some of the instances where UNSC has failed miserably.

    This failure of UNSC to resolve strategically important issues peacefully, without any prejudice, points out to the self-evident growth and consolidation of multi-polar world, which has reduced the potency of a body like UNSC a mere letter and spirit existence.Once known for its affirmative potency, UNSC has been made irrelevant by the permanent members themselves, over-riding the resolution process and operating according to their will and clout. Most of the contemporary international issues, such as Iran-Nuclear deal have been started to be solved through diplomatic channels of various countries or through age-old routes of economic sanctions.

    These ways of addressing international strategic issues, are not only redundant and obsolete, but also a threat to global security, unsustainable and opaque. The multifarious inter-connectedness and inter-dependencies of countries, often result in biased actions or impunitive actions, which give rise to unethical activities, such as intervention in domestic politics, exploitation natural resources, inaction on terrorism for personal diplomatic mileages, inequalities in income and living standards, unregulated pollution and resulting climate change. The need for a powerful body like UNSC, is all the more important in present scenario of increasing challenges to humanity, for the issues unaddressed on account of inter-wined diplomatic relations at multiple levels and areas can’t ensure global responsibility to ensure the mandate of UN.

    Responsibility to impose the mandate of UN, can be ensured by making UNSC more powerful. In the multi-polar world, to implement this responsibility, the UNSC needs to be represented by member countries who are larger shareholders of world political setup. The G-4 countries, representing a major share in GDP of world and its demography are the most viable contenders for this membership.

    The UN, with UNSC as its core decision making body, after its inception in 1945, 70 years hence, has turned into an impunitive institution, losing its very mandate of ensuring global cooperation and punitive action against forces, which disturb the equilibrium of peace and tranquility. This calls for a reform in UNSC to ensure it’s more inclusive and decisive action on challenges which pertain to rise of radical forces, terrorism, expansionism, unemployment, climate change, refugee crisis and sustainable development. The G-4 countries, with their increasing global share, both economically and strategically, need to be accommodated in global decision making bodies such as UNSC, to ensure more representative and punitive body, thereby increasing its utility.

    • Hello sachin thanks for choosing our platform for you first essay. The journey of success starts with a first step towards you goal.
      Coming to your essay:

      1. Your introduction is good

      2. language & expression are also nice

      3. your analysis & seamless weaving of past with present is worth a praise.

      Suggestions from our side:

      1. write short sentences. Ex- the cold war sentence could have been written like : One was, the bitter rivalry between USA & Russia which started with cold war & ended with soviet disintegration in 1991.

      2. you didn’t explain why the events you marked important were actually important for UNSC

      3. add more dimensions of reform

      • Thank you.
        I could realise I was short of multi-dimensional analysis. Will improve further.
        Just one more request, can you please provide me with marks for this essay, though it’s not that important at this initial stage, but will nevertheless help me in tracking my progress and filling up the gaps.
        Thank you.

  2. Hello everyone, I am new here. I really appreciate such novel efforts. Will try to contribute my bit to it. Hope to see this endeavor become a success soon.
    I have penned down my 1st essay. Please review and be as critical as possible.
    1st page

          • Thanks utkarsh.
            1.Your ideas are superb
            2.Structure of the essay is good.

            Suggestions from our side are :
            1.In intro you wrote much about UN which could be trimmed as you have limited words
            2.Focus a bit on sentence formation Ex: the line “if not fully” can be rephrased as “if not fully, at least a partial world peace”
            3.You need to work on expression. ex: “the common trend in all these” : your idea is common reason behind it but it failed to make the desired impact.
            4.You brought good dimensions but there is scope for a few more
            5.The later paras present the argument forcefully & succeed in making an impression while the initial ones lack a bit in it. Writing more will help you & will boost your marks.

          • Thanks for your response. Will definitely work on these. One thing which I would like to ask you is about the intro. Should it be kept plain and simple or glossy and attractive?

          • The introduction should be designed to attract the reader’s attention, giving him/her an idea of the essay’s focus. It should contain a mini-outline of what you are going to incorporate in the later paragraphs. Simple words with small sentences should be used. Use of ornamental language should be avoided.

    • Hello Jpal, thank you for the kind words. Now coming to your essay:
      It was a nice attempt, you tried to bring various aspects like women,tribal,environment etc.But in all these things you actually missed the whole content & context of essay. An in depth understanding of UNSC reform issue is required, you actually made a point to reform the whole UN which looked slightly misplaced from the topic.You structured the essay nicely, it was divided well in intro body conclusion.
      Few other suggestions are:
      Please avoid cutting/ overwriting on the first page itself.
      Avoid writing words in fragments (like you wrote Pal-istine)

      You can do better. Keep writing All d best !!!

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